April 15, 2024

The Oacian cover 71 percent of the Earth’s surface and are crucial to our survival. They govern weather, climate, atmospheric gasses and wind patterns around the globe.

The oceans are divided into various regions depending on climatic and biological conditions. They include the photic zone (from surface to 200 meters below), pelagic zones and abyssal zones.

The Atlantic Oacian is the second-largest of the world’s oceans, occupying approximately one-fifth of the planet’s surface. Its area with its adjacent seas is 41.1 million square miles (106.4 million square kilometers); without them it’s 31.8 million square miles (82.4 million square kilometers).

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The mid-Atlantic Ridge, an immense underwater mountain chain, stretches from the north to the south along the coast of the Atlantic. This mountain range was formed by volcanic activity and earthquakes.

This ridge is in the limit of four tectonic plates (Eurasian, North American, South American, and African). It forms a continuous sea floor and also pushes the continents away from each other. Several other transverse ridges run between the ridge and also the continents to divide the ocean floor into numerous sub-basins.


Oacian are vast bodies of water that cover roughly 70% of the earth. They are divided into five major divisions, referred to as the North Pacific, South Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and also Arctic oceans.

They are also referred to as seas, though they have many other names. We are often surrounded by land and can be salt or freshwater.

The Oacian is a huge source of energy for the Earth, storing much of the solar radiation reaching it from the sun. It also helps to distribute heat around the world. When water molecules absorb energy from the sun, they exchange with air, resulting in rain and storms.


Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth’s oceans. They create two tidal bulges on opposite sides of the Earth-one facing the Moon and a slightly smaller one facing away from the Moon (see illustration).

The Moon’s gravity isn’t exactly lining up with Earth’s position as the planet rotates. Because of this, the two tidal bulges don’t line up exactly.

As a result, the height and timing of tides can vary greatly from place to place. This is because the shape of the Earth and landmasses affect the water’s movement around it, as well as the geometry of the ocean basins and the rotation of the Earth.

Water Levels

Water levels on Earth vary over time and space due to physical processes like tides and waves. A measure of these changes is global mean sea level (GMSL), a reference height to compare with local and regional levels.

Scores of Tide Gauge Stations

This global average is derived from scores of tide gauge stations around the globe. It is also supplemented with data from satellite altimeters, a technology that measures the distance between a fixed reference ellipsoid and the surface of the ocean.

Global sea level is rising as a result of two major forces: the melting of ice on glaciers and ice sheets, and the thermal expansion of ocean water. The latest estimate from a NASA-led team suggests that GMSL will rise by more than a foot by the end of this century, even if greenhouse gas emissions follow a relatively low pathway.

Ocean Floor

The sea floor is an ever-changing landscape, shaped by waves, wind and rain. The deepest parts of the ocean have deep depressions called ocean trenches.

New research suggests that acidic water from global warming is reaching the ocean floor and dissolving some calcite-based sediments. This is a big change for the planet, because calcite is a major component of the seafloor.

Carbon Dioxide

When calcite dissolves, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This gas is a greenhouse gas that contributes to Earth’s warming climate.

Final Words:

Over the course of a few million years, ocean water and calcite dissolve together to form sulfate deposits, which can be mined for valuable minerals like gold. Some sulfate deposits are formed by hydrothermal vents, which release superheated water enriched with minerals from the Earth’s interior.

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